China has a development plan, which includes some projects in Space Science Research in recent five years. The Space Dust and Space Electromagnetic Background Probing is the third of them. In this project, Chinese scientists have reviewed the scientific objectives and the purpose of the spacecraft's and the payloads' concept designs, and will begin to manufacture the spacecraft soon. The main idea of the project is introduced in this paper. The background of space debris and space electromagnetic is focused among the Chinese scientists. Although China has built some ground-based observation capabilities, and has set-up some modelling to research and predict the space debris, like the same as the space electromagnetic, space-based observations are needed.